News & Information


09/21/2023   Linux Today

Previously OpenTF, OpenTofu aims to create an open, community-driven successor to the Hashicorp Terraform infrastructure-as-code technology. Learn more here.

The post Linux Foundation jumps into infrastructure-as-code with OpenTofu appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

The GNOME 44.5 point release is here to further improve the GNOME Software package manager. Learn more here.

The post GNOME 44.5 Improves GNOME Software, Epiphany, More appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

GNOME 45 “Riga” raises the bar with its core app updates, ensuring a more enjoyable and efficient Linux experience. Here’s what’s new!

The post GNOME 45 Riga Released: Here’s the Best New Features appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

Breaking changes: The Linux LTS (Long Term Support) kernel support will be reduced from six to two years. Learn more about it here!

The post Linux LTS Kernels Moves to a 2-Year Support Period appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

Oracle launched something of a bare metal cloud that takes advantage of Nvidia’s H100 Tensor Core GPUs and is intended for running heavy duty generative AI and LLM workloads. Learn more here.

The post Oracle Cloud Antes Into Generative AI, LLM Game With NVIDIA Chips appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Journal
Linux Networking: A Simplified Guide to IP Addresses and Routing

Every Linux enthusiast or administrator, at some point, encounters the need to configure or troubleshoot network settings. While the process can appear intimidating, with the right knowledge and tools, mastering Linux networking can be both enlightening and empowering. In this guide, we'll explore the essentials of configuring IP addresses and routing on Linux systems.

Understanding Basic Networking Concepts

What is an IP address?

Every device connected to a network has a unique identifier known as an IP address. This serves as its 'address' in the vast interconnected world of the Internet.

  • IPv4 vs. IPv6: While IPv4 is still prevalent, its successor, IPv6, offers a larger address space and improved features. IPv4 addresses look like, whereas IPv6 addresses resemble 1200:0000:AB00:1234:0000:2552:7777:1313.

  • Public vs. Private IPs: Public IPs are globally unique and directly reachable over the Internet. Private IPs are reserved for internal network use and are not routable on the public Internet.

Subnet Masks and Gateways

A subnet mask determines which portion of an IP address is the network and which is the host. The gateway, typically a router, connects local networks to external networks.


At its core, routing is the mechanism that determines how data should travel from its source to its destination across interconnected networks.

Network Configuration Tools in Linux

Linux offers both traditional tools like ifconfig and route and modern ones like ip, nmcli, and nmtui. The choice of tool often depends on the specific distribution and the administrator's preference.

NetworkManager and systemd-networkd have also modernized network management, providing both CLI and GUI tools for configuration.

Configuring IP Addresses in Linux

  1. Using the ip command:

    • Display Current Configuration: ip addr show
    • Assign a Static IP: ip addr add dev eth0
    • Remove an IP Address: ip addr del dev eth0
  2. Using nmcli for NetworkManager:

09/21/2023   Linux Today

Recently, Unbound donated Upjet, a framework designed to be used with the Crossplane framework it donated last year, to CNCF.

The post Unbound Donated Upjet Code Generator Framework to CNCF appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

Linux Mint posted a warning on a regression in the installer for LMDE 6 Faye beta. The regression has been fixed, but the new ISO files are not yet ready.

The post Linux Mint LMDE 6 Faye Beta Installer Regression Warning appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

Fedora 40 is making waves in the Linux community with plans to eliminate X11 sessions for GNOME and KDE. Learn more here.

The post Fedora 40 Plans to Drop GNOME X11 Session appeared first on Linux Today.

09/21/2023   Linux Today

With ALP and Slowroll on the horizon, openSUSE users may feel lost in translation. Don’t! Here are the answers and what lies ahead.

The post openSUSE Slowroll: The King Is Dead, Long Live the King! appeared first on Linux Today.

09/20/2023   Linux Today

Powered by the latest and greatest Linux 6.5 kernel series, the Fedora Linux 39 beta is here to showcase the forthcoming GNOME 45 desktop environment.

The post Fedora Linux 39 Beta Released With GNOME 45, Linux Kernel 6.5 appeared first on Linux Today.

09/19/2023   Linux Journal

Microsoft's Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) continues to evolve with the release of WSL 2 version 0.0.2. This update introduces a set of opt-in preview features designed to enhance performance and compatibility.

Key additions include "Automatic memory reclaim" which dynamically optimizes WSL's memory footprint, and "Sparse VHD" to shrink the size of the virtual hard disk file. These improvements aim to streamline resource usage.

Additionally, a new "mirrored networking mode" brings expanded networking capabilities like IPv6 and multicast support. Microsoft claims this will improve VPN and LAN connectivity from both the Windows host and Linux guest. 

Complementing this is a new "DNS Tunneling" feature that changes how DNS queries are resolved to avoid compatibility issues with certain network setups. According to Microsoft, this should reduce problems connecting to the internet or local network resources within WSL.

Advanced firewall configuration options are also now available through Hyper-V integration. The new "autoProxy" feature ensures WSL seamlessly utilizes the Windows system proxy configuration.

Microsoft states these features are currently rolling out to Windows Insiders running Windows 11 22H2 Build 22621.2359 or later. They remain opt-in previews to allow testing before final integration into WSL.

By expanding WSL 2 with compelling new capabilities in areas like resource efficiency, networking, and security, Microsoft aims to make Linux on Windows more performant and compatible. This evolutionary approach based on user feedback highlights Microsoft's commitment to WSL as a key part of the Windows ecosystem.

09/19/2023   Linux Journal

The threat actor Earth Lusca, linked to Chinese state-sponsored hacking groups, has been observed utilizing a new Linux backdoor dubbed SprySOCKS to target government organizations globally. 

As initially reported in January 2022 by Trend Micro, Earth Lusca has been active since at least 2021 conducting cyber espionage campaigns against public and private sector targets in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Their tactics include spear-phishing and watering hole attacks to gain initial access. Some of Earth Lusca's activities overlap with another Chinese threat cluster known as RedHotel.

In new research, Trend Micro reveals Earth Lusca remains highly active, even expanding operations in the first half of 2023. Primary victims are government departments focused on foreign affairs, technology, and telecommunications. Attacks concentrate in Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and the Balkans regions. 

After breaching internet-facing systems by exploiting flaws in Fortinet, GitLab, Microsoft Exchange, Telerik UI, and Zimbra software, Earth Lusca uses web shells and Cobalt Strike to move laterally. Their goal is exfiltrating documents and credentials, while also installing additional backdoors like ShadowPad and Winnti for long-term spying.

The Command and Control server delivering Cobalt Strike was also found hosting SprySOCKS - an advanced backdoor not previously publicly reported. With roots in the Windows malware Trochilus, SprySOCKS contains reconnaissance, remote shell, proxy, and file operation capabilities. It communicates over TCP mimicking patterns used by a Windows trojan called RedLeaves, itself built on Trochilus.

At least two SprySOCKS versions have been identified, indicating ongoing development. This novel Linux backdoor deployed by Earth Lusca highlights the increasing sophistication of Chinese state-sponsored threats. Robust patching, access controls, monitoring for unusual activities, and other proactive defenses remain essential to counter this advanced malware.

The Trend Micro researchers emphasize that organizations must minimize attack surfaces, regularly update systems, and ensure robust security hygiene to interrupt the tactics, techniques, and procedures of relentless threat groups like Earth Lusca.

09/19/2023   Linux Journal

The Linux kernel is undergoing major changes that will shape its future development and adoption, according to Jonathan Corbet, Linux kernel developer and executive editor of Linux Weekly News. Speaking at the Open Source Summit Europe, Corbet provided an update on the latest Linux kernel developments and a glimpse of what's to come.

A major change on the horizon is a reduction in long-term support (LTS) for kernel versions from six years to just two years. Corbet explained that maintaining old kernel branches indefinitely is unsustainable and most users have migrated to newer versions, so there's little point in continuing six years of support. While some may grumble about shortened support lifecycles, the reality is that constantly backporting fixes to ancient kernels strains maintainers.

This maintainer burnout poses a serious threat, as Corbet highlighted. Maintaining Linux is largely a volunteer effort, with only about 200 of the 2,000+ developers paid for their contributions. The endless demands on maintainers' time from fuzz testing, fixing minor bugs, and reviewing contributions takes a toll. Prominent maintainers have warned they need help to avoid collapse. Companies relying on Linux must realize giving back financially is in their interest to sustain this vital ecosystem. 

The Linux kernel is also wading into waters new with the introduction of Rust code. While Rust solves many problems, it also introduces new complexities around language integration, evolving standards, and maintainer expertise. Corbet believes Rust will pass the point of no return when core features depend on it, which may occur soon with additions like Apple M1 GPU drivers. Despite skepticism in some corners, Rust's benefits likely outweigh any transition costs.

On the distro front, Red Hat's decision to restrict RHEL cloning sparked community backlash. While business considerations were at play, Corbet noted technical factors too. Using older kernels with backported fixes, as RHEL does, risks creating divergent, vendor-specific branches. The Android model of tracking mainline kernel dev more closely has shown security benefits. Ultimately, Linux works best when aligned with the broader community.

In closing, Corbet recalled the saying "Linux is free like a puppy is free." Using open source seems easy at first, but sustaining it long-term requires significant care and feeding. As Linux is incorporated into more critical systems, that maintenance becomes ever more crucial. The kernel changes ahead are aimed at keeping Linux healthy and vibrant for the next generation of users, businesses, and developers.

The following updated rpms for Oracle Linux 9 have been uploaded to the Unbreakable Linux Network:
The following updated rpms for Oracle Linux 9 have been uploaded to the Unbreakable Linux Network:
The following updated rpms for Oracle Linux 8 have been uploaded to the Unbreakable Linux Network:
The following updated rpms for Oracle Linux 7 have been uploaded to the Unbreakable Linux Network:
The following updated rpms for Oracle Linux 7 have been uploaded to the Unbreakable Linux Network:
The following updated rpms for Oracle Linux 7 have been uploaded to the Unbreakable Linux Network:
09/19/2023   Linux Journal
Guide to Setting Up Remote Desktop on Linux

In today's increasingly distributed work landscape, providing remote access to Linux devices is critical for organizations embracing location flexibility. Employees utilizing Linux machines need the ability to securely connect from anywhere to remain productive. Likewise, IT teams require remote Linux access for efficient troubleshooting, maintenance, and support across decentralized teams and infrastructure.

With proper configuration using the right protocols and tools, organizations can provide robust and secure remote Linux desktops to distributed workforces. However, setting up effective remote access for Linux can pose challenges given the diversity of distributions and use cases involved.

The Benefits of Remote Linux Desktop Capabilities

Linux is a highly popular and customizable open source operating system leveraged across personal devices, servers, cloud infrastructure, and more. Leading Linux distributions include Ubuntu, Fedora, Mint, Debian, openSUSE, Arch, and CentOS. This Linux ecosystem provides excellent security, performance, flexibility, and cost savings.

However, the same adaptability that makes Linux advantageous also leads to complexity in setting up remote desktop access. There is no one-size-fits-all approach. Enabling Linux remote connectivity requires considering:

  • The target Linux distribution and version
  • Device types from desktops to mobile
  • The operating system of the accessing client
  • Network configurations and bandwidth
  • Chosen remote access protocols and software
  • Use cases like troubleshooting versus everyday access

Despite these challenges, building the capability for Linux remote desktops delivers significant benefits:

  • Employees retain full access to files, settings, and apps on their Linux machines from anywhere with an internet connection. This improves productivity for remote and mobile workers.
  • Organizations avoid costs associated with purchasing additional devices to have Linux access in multiple locations or while traveling.
  • IT teams gain efficiency by remotely troubleshooting and administering Linux devices. Issues can be swiftly diagnosed and resolved.
  • Remote collaboration on Linux machines becomes seamless for distributed or hybrid teams.
  • With remote access, Linux devices can be flexibly used from different client types based on user preferences, such as Linux desktops, Windows PCs, Macs, tablets, and smartphones.
  • Overall equipment expenses and travel costs are reduced by enabling anytime, anywhere access to Linux machines for employees and IT staff.
Key Protocols and Tools for Linux Remote Connectivity

A few primary protocols dominate for accessing Linux remotely. Each has pros and cons to weigh based on use cases:

09/17/2023   Linux Journal

Today marks the 32nd anniversary of Linus Torvalds introducing the inaugural Linux 0.01 kernel version, and celebrating this milestone, Torvalds has launched the Linux 6.6-rc2. Among the noteworthy updates are the inclusion of a feature catering to the ASUS ROG Flow X16 tablet's mode handling and the renaming of the new GenPD subsystem to pmdomain.

The Linux 6.6 edition is progressing well, brimming with exciting new features that promise to enhance user experience. Early benchmarks are indicating promising results, especially on high-core-count servers, pointing to a potentially robust and efficient update in the Linux series.

Here is what Linus Torvalds had to say in today's announcement:

Another week, another -rc.

I think the most notable thing about 6.6-rc2 is simply that it's
exactly 32 years to the day since the 0.01 release. And that's a round
number if you are a computer person.

Because other than the random date, I don't see anything that really
stands out here. We've got random fixes all over, and none of it looks
particularly strange. The genpd -> pmdomain rename shows up in the
diffstat, but there's no actual code changes involved (make sure to
use "git diff -M" to see them as zero-line renames).

And other than that, things look very normal. Sure, the architecture
fixes happen to be mostly parisc this week, which isn't exactly the
usual pattern, but it's also not exactly a huge amount of changes.

Most of the (small) changes here are in drivers, with some tracing
fixes and just random things. The shortlog below is short enough to
scroll through and get a taste of what's been going on.
09/14/2023   Linux Journal
Safeguarding Linux Landscapes: Backup and Restore Strategies

In the dynamic world of Linux environments, safeguarding data stands paramount. Whether for personal use or maneuvering through server settings, understanding the depth of backup and restore strategies can be a game-changer. This article unfurls the multifaceted avenues of Linux backup and restore strategies, touching upon the necessity to have a fortified plan and how it keeps the data landscape secure and retrievable in Linux operating systems.

Understanding Linux File System

Before delving into the intricacies of backup and restore strategies, it's vital to understand the Linux file system. Linux supports several file systems such as ext4, XFS, and Btrfs, each boasting unique features that govern how data is stored and retrieved. Appreciating the nuances of these file systems can significantly influence your backup and restore strategy, rendering it more robust and suited to your specific needs.

Backup Strategies

Protection starts with a proper backup strategy. Let's explore various backup avenues available in Linux environments.

Manual Backup

Utilizing Basic Linux Commands

Linux offers potent commands like cp, tar, and rsync to facilitate manual backups. These commands are versatile, allowing users to specify exactly what to back up.

  • Full control over the backup process
  • No additional software required
  • Requires good knowledge of Linux commands
  • Time-consuming and prone to human errors

Automated Backup

Cron Jobs

Cron jobs make it possible to schedule backups at regular intervals, automating the backup process and reducing the possibility of human error.

Linux Backup Solutions

Bacula and Amanda stand tall as holistic solutions offering a range of features to facilitate automated backups.

  • Regular automatic backups
  • Comprehensive solutions with detailed reporting
  • Can be complex to set up initially
  • Potential overhead on system resources
Restore Strategies

Having a backup is half the journey; being adept at restoration completes it. Let’s delineate various restoration strategies pertinent to Linux environments.

Manual Restore

Restoring with Linux Commands

Using Linux commands for restoration carries the same pros and cons as using them for backups, offering control but requiring expertise.

09/12/2023   Linux Journal
Navigating the Landscape of Linux File System Types

In the Linux environment, the file system acts as a backbone, orchestrating the systematic storage and retrieval of data. It is a hierarchical structure that outlines how data is organized, stored, and accessed on a storage device. Understanding the different Linux file system types can profoundly aid both developers and administrators in optimizing system performance and ensuring data security. This article delves deep into the intricate world of Linux file system types, tracing their evolutionary history and dissecting their features to provide a roadmap for selecting the appropriate file system for your needs.

History of Linux File Systems

Early Adventures in Linux File Systems

In the late 80s and early 90s, the Linux environment utilized relatively rudimentary file systems such as Minix, which later evolved to extended file systems like ext and ext2. These were foundational in framing the modern Linux file systems we see today.

The Journey from ext2 to ext4

The extended family of file systems transitioned from ext2 to ext3, introducing journaling features, and eventually culminated in the development of ext4, which brought forth substantial improvements in performance and storage capabilities.

Understanding Linux File System Types

Dive into the fascinating world of Linux file systems, each characterized by its unique features and functionalities that cater to various demands and preferences.

The Extended Family

  • ext2

    • Features and Limitations: Known for its simplicity and robustness, ext2 lacks journaling capabilities, which can be a drawback in data recovery scenarios.
    • Use Cases: Ideal for USB drives and flash memory where journaling isn't a priority.
  • ext3

    • Features and Limitations: Building upon ext2, ext3 introduced journaling capabilities, improving data integrity yet lagging in performance compared to its successors.
    • Use Cases: Suitable for systems requiring data reliability without the need for top-tier performance.
  • ext4

09/05/2023   Linux Journal
How to Change the Hostname in Debian 12 BookWorm


In the vast realm of networked computers, each device needs a unique identifier—a name that allows it to be distinguishable from the crowd. This unique identifier is known as the "hostname." Whether you are working in a large corporate network or simply tinkering with a personal Linux box, you might find yourself needing to change this hostname at some point. This comprehensive guide walks you through the process of changing the hostname in Debian 12 BookWorm, one of the latest iterations of the popular Linux distribution Debian.


Before diving into the nitty-gritty, ensure you have the following:

  1. Access to a Terminal: You can access the terminal through your GUI or via SSH if you're working remotely.
  2. Superuser or sudo Privileges: Administrative access is necessary to make system-wide changes.
  3. Basic Understanding of Linux Command Line: Knowing how to navigate the terminal will be beneficial.
  4. Installed Instance of Debian 12 BookWorm: The instructions are tailored for this specific version.


To make sure we're on the same page, let's clarify some terminology:

  1. Hostname: A label assigned to a machine on a network.
  2. Superuser: The administrator with full access to the Linux system.
  3. sudo: Command that allows permitted users to execute a command as a superuser.
  4. /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts: Configuration files storing hostname information.

Backup Current Settings

It's always prudent to backup important configurations before making any changes. Open the terminal and run:

cp /etc/hostname /etc/hostname.bak cp /etc/hosts /etc/hosts.bak

This creates backup copies of your current hostname and hosts files.

Method 1: Using the hostnamectl Command

Step 1: Check Current Hostname

To see your current hostname, run the following command:


Step 2: Change the Hostname

To change your hostname, execute:

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname new-hostname

Replace new-hostname with your desired hostname. For instance, to change the hostname to "mydebian," you'd run:

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname mydebian

Step 3: Verify the Changes

Use the hostnamectl command again to check if the hostname has been updated:


08/31/2023   Linux Journal
The Arch Decision: Evaluating If a Leap From Manjaro to EndeavourOS Is Right for You


In the expansive universe of Linux distributions, the choice of which one to use can be overwhelming. Among the galaxies of options, two Arch-based stars have shone increasingly brightly: Manjaro and EndeavourOS. Both are rooted in the Arch Linux ecosystem, yet they cater to different kinds of users and offer unique experiences. If you're currently a Manjaro user contemplating the switch to EndeavourOS, this article aims to help you make an informed decision.

Background Information

What is Manjaro?

Manjaro is an Arch-based Linux distribution that is designed to be user-friendly and accessible. Known for its 'Install and Go' philosophy, Manjaro offers ease of use, making it suitable for Linux newcomers. It comes with a variety of desktop environments like XFCE, KDE, and GNOME, among others. Manjaro also features its own package manager, Pamac, which makes software installation a breeze. Automatic updates and built-in stability checks make it a go-to choice for those who want the power of Arch Linux without its complexities.

What is EndeavourOS?

EndeavourOS is also an Arch-based Linux distribution, but it aims to be closer to vanilla Arch. Targeted at intermediate to advanced users, EndeavourOS offers an almost bare-bones experience with the choice to customize your system as you see fit. While it does come with an installer, it is more manual compared to Manjaro's Calamares installer. It aims to provide the user with an Arch experience with minimal added features, relying mostly on the Arch User Repository (AUR) and Pacman for package management.

Comparison Criteria

To make an apples-to-apples comparison between Manjaro and EndeavourOS, we'll evaluate them based on the following criteria:

  • Ease of Installation
  • Package Management
  • Desktop Environments
  • System Performance
  • Software Availability
  • Community Support
  • Stability and Updates

Detailed Comparison

Ease of Installation

Manjaro offers an incredibly user-friendly installation process via its Calamares installer. It is mostly automated and requires only minimal user interaction.

EndeavourOS, on the other hand, offers a more hands-on installation process. Though it also offers an installer, it allows for more customization during the setup, which might be more appealing to advanced users but intimidating for beginners.

Package Management

Manjaro uses Pamac for package management, which offers a clean, easy-to-use graphical interface. It also supports AUR, enabling a wide range of software availability.