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06/23/2024   Linux Today

In networking, tunnels are a method for discretely transmitting data across a network using protocols that are not supported by that network. Tunneling works by encapsulating packets: wrapping packets inside other packets. Tunneling involves six key processes: encryption, encapsulation, header addition, transmission, decapsulation, and decryption.

The post 7 Useful Free Linux Network Tunnels appeared first on Linux Today.

06/23/2024   Linux Today


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06/23/2024   Linux Today


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06/23/2024   Linux Today


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06/23/2024   Linux Today


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This update includes a rebase from 9.0.83 to 9.0.89. #2269611 CVE-2024-24549 tomcat: CVE-2024-24549: Apache Tomcat: HTTP/2 header handling DoS #2269612 CVE-2024-23672 tomcat: Apache Tomcat: WebSocket DoS with incomplete closing handshake
06/22/2024   Linux Today

Master traffic redirection with our Caddy tutorial. Set up Caddy as a reverse proxy and quickly streamline access to your services.

The post How to Set up Caddy as a Reverse Proxy appeared first on Linux Today.

New emacs packages are available for Slackware 15.0 and -current to fix a security issue.
Use-after-free in networking. (CVE-2024-5702) Use-after-free in JavaScript object transplant. (CVE-2024-5688) External protocol handlers leaked by timing attack. (CVE-2024-5690) Sandboxed iframes were able to bypass sandbox restrictions to open a new window. (CVE-2024-5691)
06/22/2024   Linux Today

PostgreSQL or Postgres is an open-source object-relational database management system that implements the SQL querying language. pgAdmin is an open-source administration tool for PostgreSQL.

The post How to Install PostgreSQL and pgAdmin on Ubuntu 22.04 appeared first on Linux Today.

06/22/2024   Linux Today


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06/22/2024   Linux Today


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06/22/2024   Linux Today


The post appeared first on Linux Today.

Multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in JHead, the worst of which may lead to arbitrary code execution.
A vulnerability has been discovered in LZ4, which can lead to memory corruption.
A vulnerability has been discovered in RDoc, which can lead to execution of arbitrary code.
06/20/2024   Linux Journal
Efficient Container Orchestration Tips with Docker Swarm on Linux


In the fast-evolving landscape of software development, containerization has emerged as a revolutionary technology. Containers encapsulate applications and their dependencies, ensuring consistent performance across various environments. This paradigm shift has addressed many challenges associated with traditional virtualization, such as bloated resource usage and cumbersome deployment processes. By providing lightweight, portable, and self-sufficient units, containerization streamlines the development-to-production workflow, enhancing efficiency and reliability.

As containerization gained traction, the need for robust orchestration tools became evident. Docker Swarm, a native clustering and orchestration tool for Docker containers, was introduced to meet this demand. Developed by Docker Inc., Docker Swarm simplifies the management of containerized applications across a cluster of machines. It enables developers to deploy, manage, and scale applications seamlessly. While Kubernetes often dominates the container orchestration conversation, Docker Swarm remains a popular choice due to its simplicity and deep integration with the Docker ecosystem.

Understanding Docker Swarm

Basic Concepts and Terminology

To effectively utilize Docker Swarm, it is essential to understand its fundamental concepts and terminology:

  • Nodes: The machines participating in the Swarm, which can be either managers or workers. Managers handle cluster management tasks, while workers execute the containers.
  • Services: Definitions of tasks to be performed by the Swarm, representing one or more containers. Services are distributed across the cluster.
  • Tasks: The atomic units of work in a Swarm, essentially containers running a part of a service.
  • Overlay Network: A virtual network that spans all nodes in the Swarm, facilitating secure communication between services.
  • Load Balancing: Automatic distribution of incoming service requests across available nodes to ensure high availability and performance.
Architecture of Docker Swarm

Docker Swarm's architecture is designed for scalability, reliability, and simplicity. It consists of several key components:

06/18/2024   Linux Journal
Enhancing Your Wellness Journey: Optimizing Self-Care with Linux Gadgets


In our fast-paced, technology-driven world, maintaining wellness and self-care is more critical than ever. Wellness encompasses a broad spectrum of physical, mental, and emotional health aspects, and self-care involves practices that help us maintain and improve these areas. As technology evolves, so do the tools available to support our wellness journey. Among these tools, Linux-based gadgets stand out for their adaptability, customizability, and security. This article delves into how you can optimize your wellness and self-care routines using various Linux gadgets.

Understanding Linux Gadgets

Linux gadgets refer to devices that run on Linux or are compatible with Linux-based systems. These include a variety of smart devices like smartwatches, fitness trackers, home automation devices, and health monitoring systems. The primary advantage of Linux gadgets lies in their open source nature, which allows for significant flexibility and customizability. Users can modify and enhance the software to suit their specific needs, ensuring a more personalized and efficient wellness experience.

Fitness and Activity Tracking

Fitness and activity tracking have become integral components of wellness routines. Linux-compatible fitness gadgets offer robust solutions for monitoring physical activities and promoting a healthier lifestyle.

06/13/2024   Linux Journal
Hacking Made Easy: A Beginner's Guide to Penetration Testing with Kali Linux


Penetration testing, often referred to as pen testing, is a critical practice in the field of cybersecurity. It involves simulating cyber-attacks on a system, network, or web application to identify vulnerabilities that could be exploited by malicious actors. This proactive approach allows organizations to strengthen their defenses before an actual attack occurs. To conduct effective penetration testing, security professionals rely on specialized tools and platforms designed for this purpose. One of the most renowned platforms in this domain is Kali Linux, a Debian-based distribution tailored specifically for penetration testing and security auditing.

What is Kali Linux?

Kali Linux is an open source, Debian-based Linux distribution developed and maintained by Offensive Security. It is designed for digital forensics and penetration testing and comes pre-installed with a vast array of security tools. Originally released in March 2013, Kali Linux has evolved from its predecessor, BackTrack, to become the go-to operating system for cybersecurity professionals worldwide.

Key Features and Benefits
  • Extensive Toolset: Kali Linux includes hundreds of pre-installed tools that cover various aspects of penetration testing, from network scanning to password cracking.
  • Customizability: Users can customize Kali Linux to fit their specific needs, adding or removing tools and configuring the environment as required.
  • Portability: Kali Linux can be run as a live USB, installed on a hard drive, or used in a virtual machine, providing flexibility for different use cases.
  • Community Support: As an open source project, Kali Linux benefits from a robust and active community that contributes to its development and provides support through forums and documentation.

Installation and Setup

Before diving into penetration testing with Kali Linux, it's essential to understand the installation and setup process.

System Requirements

To install Kali Linux, ensure your system meets the following minimum requirements:

  • A 64-bit processor
  • 2 GB of RAM (4 GB recommended)
  • 20 GB of disk space for installation
  • A bootable CD-DVD drive or a USB stick
Installation Methods

There are several ways to install and run Kali Linux:

  1. Primary OS Installation: This method involves installing Kali Linux as the main operating system on your computer. This approach provides the best performance and access to hardware resources.

06/11/2024   Linux Journal
Harnessing the Power of Big Data: Exploring Linux Data Science with Apache Spark and Jupyter


In today's data-driven world, the ability to process and analyze vast amounts of data is crucial for businesses, researchers, and governments alike. Big data analytics has emerged as a pivotal component in extracting actionable insights from massive datasets. Among the myriad tools available, Apache Spark and Jupyter Notebooks stand out for their capabilities and ease of use, especially when combined in a Linux environment. This article delves into the integration of these powerful tools, providing a guide to exploring big data analytics with Apache Spark and Jupyter on Linux.

Understanding the Basics

Introduction to Big Data

Big data refers to datasets that are too large, complex, or fast-changing to be handled by traditional data processing tools. It is characterized by the four V's:

  1. Volume: The sheer size of data being generated every second by various sources such as social media, sensors, and transactional systems.
  2. Velocity: The speed at which new data is generated and needs to be processed.
  3. Variety: The different types of data, including structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data.
  4. Veracity: The uncertainty of data, ensuring accuracy and trustworthiness despite potential inconsistencies.

Big data analytics plays a crucial role in industries like finance, healthcare, marketing, and logistics, enabling organizations to gain deep insights, improve decision-making, and drive innovation.

Overview of Data Science

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to extract knowledge and insights from structured and unstructured data. Key components of data science include:

  • Data Collection: Gathering data from various sources.
  • Data Processing: Cleaning and transforming raw data into a usable format.
  • Data Analysis: Applying statistical and machine learning techniques to analyze data.
  • Data Visualization: Creating visual representations to communicate insights effectively.

Data scientists play a critical role in this process, combining domain expertise, programming skills, and knowledge of mathematics and statistics to extract meaningful insights from data.

Why Linux for Data Science

Linux is the preferred operating system for many data scientists due to its open-source nature, cost-effectiveness, and robustness. Here are some key advantages:

06/06/2024   Linux Journal
Centralize Your Digital World: How to Building a Home Server with Debian


In today’s digital age, managing and centralizing your data and services is becoming increasingly important. Whether you're looking to store your media files, run your own personal cloud, or host various applications, a home server can offer enhanced data privacy, security, and accessibility. This guide will walk you through the process of building a home server using Debian, one of the most stable and versatile Linux distributions.


Hardware Requirements

Minimum System Requirements

  • CPU: 1 GHz processor or better
  • RAM: 1 GB (2 GB recommended)
  • Storage: 20 GB of free disk space

Recommended Hardware

  • CPU: Multi-core processor (Intel i3/i5/i7 or AMD equivalent)
  • RAM: 4 GB or more
  • Storage: 500 GB or more, preferably an SSD for the operating system and additional HDDs for data storage
  • Network: Gigabit Ethernet

Choosing the Right Server Hardware

When selecting hardware for your home server, you have several options. You can repurpose an old PC, use dedicated server hardware, or even opt for a small form-factor device like a Raspberry Pi for basic tasks. Ensure your hardware meets the requirements of the services you plan to run.

Software Requirements

Overview of Debian OS

Debian is a free, open-source operating system known for its stability and large software repository. It’s an excellent choice for a home server due to its reliability and robust community support.

Necessary Software Tools and Packages

  • Debian ISO file
  • Etcher (or any tool to create a bootable USB drive)
  • SSH client (e.g., PuTTY for Windows, terminal for Linux/macOS)
  • Web server software (Apache or Nginx)
  • File server software (Samba or NFS)
  • Database server software (MySQL or PostgreSQL)
  • Additional services software (Nextcloud, Plex, Postfix, etc.)

Setting Up Your Server

Step 1: Preparing Your Hardware

Ensure all components are correctly assembled and connected. This includes installing the CPU, RAM, storage drives, and connecting all necessary peripherals such as the keyboard, monitor, and network cables.

For initial setup, you’ll need a keyboard and monitor connected to your server. Once set up, you can manage your server remotely using SSH.

06/04/2024   Linux Journal
How Linux-Based Firmware Boosts Performance in Routers and Networking Equipment


In the ever-evolving landscape of networking technology, routers and other networking equipment form the backbone of our connected world. The firmware running on these devices is crucial to their performance, security, and functionality. Recently, Linux-based firmware has emerged as a powerful alternative, offering enhanced control, customization, and stability. This article delves into the significance of Linux-based firmware in routers and networking equipment, exploring its benefits, implementation, challenges, and future trends.

Understanding Firmware in Networking Equipment

Firmware is the low-level software programmed into a device's read-only memory, responsible for controlling its hardware functions. In the context of routers and networking equipment, firmware dictates how the device manages network traffic, security protocols, and other critical tasks. Unlike regular software that can be easily modified or replaced, firmware updates require a more deliberate process due to their deep integration with hardware.

Firmware updates are essential for maintaining device security, fixing bugs, and enhancing performance. However, proprietary firmware often limits user control and customization. This is where Linux-based firmware steps in, providing an open source alternative that empowers users with greater flexibility and control over their devices.

Why Linux?

Linux is a robust and versatile operating system renowned for its open source nature, stability, and security. These attributes make it an ideal candidate for developing firmware for networking equipment. Here are some key reasons why Linux-based firmware is gaining traction:

Open Source Nature

The open source nature of Linux means that its source code is freely available for anyone to use, modify, and distribute. This fosters a collaborative community of developers who continually improve the firmware, ensuring it stays up-to-date with the latest advancements and security patches.

Flexibility and Customization

Linux-based firmware offers unparalleled flexibility and customization options. Users can tailor the firmware to meet their specific needs, adding or removing features as required. This level of control is especially beneficial for advanced users and network administrators who need to optimize their network performance.

Stability and Performance

Linux is known for its stability and performance, making it a reliable choice for critical applications. Linux-based firmware leverages these strengths, providing networking equipment with a stable and high-performing operating environment that can handle heavy network traffic and complex configurations.

05/30/2024   Linux Journal
Understanding Linux Filesystems: Inodes, Block Sizes, and Data Structures


A filesystem is a fundamental component of any operating system. It is the system that manages how data is stored and retrieved on a storage device. In the world of Linux, filesystems play a crucial role in the organization and efficiency of data handling. With several types of filesystems available, understanding their underlying structures and functions is essential for anyone working with Linux, whether you're a system administrator, developer, or an enthusiast.

This article aims to provide an understanding of some of the critical concepts within Linux filesystems: inodes, block sizes, and data structures, as well as to how these elements work together to manage and organize data efficiently in a Linux environment.

Basics of Linux Filesystems

A filesystem is a method and data structure that an operating system uses to control how data is stored and retrieved. Without a filesystem, data placed in a storage medium would be one large block with no way to tell where one piece of data ends and the next begins. By separating the data into individual pieces and giving each piece a name, the data is easily isolated and identified. More precisely, a filesystem manages the following:

  • Space management: It keeps track of which areas of the storage device are free and which are in use.
  • File naming: It allows files to be named and organized into directories.
  • Data access: It provides methods for reading and writing data.
  • Data integrity: It ensures data is stored reliably and can be recovered in case of failure.

There are several types of filesystems used in Linux, each with its features and advantages:

05/28/2024   Linux Journal
The Secret Weapon to Supercharge Your Linux System With Liquorix Kernel


Linux is renowned for its flexibility, security, and performance, making it the operating system of choice for developers, system administrators, and power users alike. However, the generic Linux kernel may not always meet the needs of users seeking maximum performance and responsiveness. This is where the Liquorix Kernel comes into play—a performance-optimized alternative that promises to supercharge your Linux system. In this article, we will explore what the Liquorix Kernel is, why you might want to use it, and how to install and configure it to get the best performance out of your system.

Understanding the Liquorix Kernel

The Liquorix Kernel is a precompiled Linux kernel designed for desktop, multimedia, and gaming workloads. Developed and maintained by the Liquorix community, it aims to provide an optimized kernel that enhances the overall performance and responsiveness of Linux systems.

The generic Linux kernel, provided by most distributions, is designed to be a one-size-fits-all solution, balancing performance, stability, and compatibility across a wide range of hardware and software environments. In contrast, the Liquorix Kernel focuses on performance enhancements, particularly for desktop and multimedia applications. It incorporates a variety of patches and tweaks aimed at reducing latency, improving responsiveness, and boosting overall system performance.

  • Performance Optimization: Liquorix Kernel is tuned for maximum performance, especially in desktop environments where responsiveness is crucial.
  • Real-Time Processing Enhancements: It includes patches for better real-time performance, which is beneficial for multimedia applications and gaming.
  • Improved Responsiveness and Lower Latency: The kernel's low-latency configuration ensures that the system remains responsive under heavy loads.

Why Choose Liquorix Kernel?

The Liquorix Kernel is particularly beneficial for users who demand high performance and low latency from their systems. Some typical use cases include:

05/23/2024   Linux Journal
Optimizing Linux Server Performance: Benchmarking and Advanced Techniques


In the realm of IT infrastructure, the performance of Linux servers is a critical factor that can significantly influence business operations, user experience, and cost efficiency. Linux servers, known for their flexibility and open-source nature, are prevalent in enterprise environments. Understanding how to evaluate and optimize their performance is essential for maintaining a robust and responsive IT ecosystem. This article delves into the intricacies of benchmarking and optimization techniques to ensure your Linux servers operate at their peak potential.

Understanding Server Performance Metrics

Effective performance evaluation starts with a clear understanding of the key metrics involved. These metrics provide a snapshot of the server’s health and performance, helping to identify potential bottlenecks.

CPU Utilization

CPU utilization is a primary indicator of server performance. It measures how much of the CPU's processing power is being used. High CPU utilization can indicate heavy computational loads, while low utilization might suggest underuse of resources.

  • Monitoring Tools: Tools such as top, htop, and mpstat offer real-time insights into CPU usage. top provides a detailed view of system processes, while htop offers a more user-friendly interface with color-coded CPU and memory usage indicators. mpstat helps in monitoring CPU utilization across multiple processors.
Memory Usage

Memory (RAM) usage is another crucial metric. It reflects how much of the server’s RAM is being used by running processes. Insufficient RAM can lead to excessive swapping, where data is moved between RAM and disk storage, slowing down performance.

  • Monitoring Tools: Commands like free and vmstat give a quick overview of memory and swap usage. free shows the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory, while vmstat provides a more detailed view of system performance, including memory, swap, and I/O statistics.
Disk I/O

Disk I/O (Input/Output) performance is vital for tasks involving large amounts of data reading and writing. High disk I/O can slow down the server if the storage subsystem cannot keep up with the demands.